According to new research, there is a suggestion that school-based programs are not very effective in the long term in preventing kids from taking up smoking. And the net upshot, it may take more than anti-smoking lessons in the classroom to keep school-age children and teens from lighting up. A recent review of studies looked at information-giving education programs, where students learned about smoking and its risks.
These may have had some impact. Other programs, though, which taught students behavioral skills, such as goal-setting, to help them learn to avoid smoking, overall, did nothing. Some experts disagree with the conclusions of the lack of program effectiveness. Data from a 15-year period show that the frequency of a particular type of heart failure — heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, also known as diastolic heart failure — is increasing.
It’s a type of failure in which the heart can still pump with power, but has a hard time relaxing and filling with blood. According to the new data, this type of heart failure now accounts for more than half of heart failure cases. The reason for the rise is due, in part, to the rise in the frequency of diseases that cause diastolic heart failure and worsen its symptoms — including hypertension, atrial fibrillation and diabetes — which also increased over the study period.
Of note, diastolic heart failure disproportionately affects women, particularly elderly women. And hyperactive girls are more likely to develop hints of heart problems later in life, according to a new Finnish study. However, it’s not clear if there’s a direct cause-and-effect link. Even when other factors were taken into account, girls who were more active than other children — not just those who might be specifically diagnosed with a psychological problem — were more likely to show indications of clogged arteries as adults. The exact cause is not clear.
The study also found that kids who are hyperactive, socially isolated and have other problems dealing with people are more likely to develop some heart-unhealthy habits later in life. These kids were more likely to smoke as adults, and were also more likely to be overweight and have high blood pressure. Other experts say the presence of hyperactivity raises risks but does not inevitably lead to adverse outcomes.